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Bali Island

Bali Island

Bali is the name of a province in Indonesia and also the name of the largest islands that are part of the province. In addition consists of the island of Bali, Bali Province is also composed of islands surrounding a smaller, namely the island of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan Island, the Serangan island and the island of Nusa Ceningan.

Bali lies between Java and Lombok Island. Denpasar is the provincial capital located on the southern island. The majority of Balinese are Hindu. In the world, Bali is famous as a tourist destination with a unique variety of art-culture, especially for the Japanese, and Australia. Bali is also known as Island of the Gods and the Thousand Temples Islands .

Geography

The island of Bali is part of the Lesser Sunda Islands along the 153 km and 112 km wide approximately 3.2 km from the island of Java. Astronomically, Bali is located at 8 ° 25’23 “south latitude and 115 ° 14’55” east longitude tropical climate that makes it like the rest of Indonesia.

Mount Agung is the highest point in Bali as high as 3148 m. The volcano last erupted in March 1963. Mount Batur is also one of the mountain in Bali. About 30,000 years ago, Mount Batur erupted and produced a terrible disaster on earth. Unlike in the north, the southern part of Bali is irrigated lowland rivers.
Based on the relief and topography, in the middle of the island lie the mountains that extends from west to east and between the mountains there is a cluster of volcanoes is Mount Batur and Mount Agung and the mountains are not volcanoes, namely Mount Merbuk, Patas and Mt Gunung Seraya.

The existence of these mountains cause by Geographic Region Bali is divided into 2  unequal parts namely North Bali with a narrow lowland and less sloping and South Bali with extensive lowland and sloping. Slope of the island consists of flat land (0-2%) covering 122 652 ha of undulating land (2-15%) covering 118 339 ha, steep land (15-40%) and an area of 190 486 ha of land is very steep (> 40%) covering 132 189 ha. Bali province to have 4 (four) lakes located in the mountains, the Lake Beratan or Bedugul, Buyan, Road, and Batur. Alam Bali the beautiful island of Bali makes sold as tourist areas.
The capital of Bali is Denpasar. Other important places as Ubud is the arts center and resort located in Gianyar regency, while Kuta, Sanur, Seminyak, Jimbaran and Nusa Dua are some places where tourism, good beaches and a resort, spa etc.

The total area of the Province of Bali is 5636.66 km2 or 0.29% of the territory of the Republic of Indonesia. Administratively, the Province of Bali is divided into 9 districts / cities, 55 districts and 701 villages / wards.

History

Rice fields around the castle Gunung Kawi, Tampaksiring, Bali.
The first inhabitants of the island of Bali is expected to come in 3000-2500 BCE who migrated from Asia.  Remains of the stone tools were found in the village Cekik located in the western part of the island.  Age of prehistory and ending with the arrival of Hinduism and written language Sanskrit from India in 100 BC.

Balinese culture and then got a strong influence of Indian culture process is faster after the 1st century AD. Balidwipa name (Bali island) began to be found in various inscriptions, including inscriptions Blanjong issued by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 913 AD and mentioning the word Walidwipa. Estimated at about this time that irrigation system subak was developed for rice cultivation. Some religious and cultural traditions also began to develop at that time. Kingdom of Majapahit (1293-1500 AD) who are Hindu and centered on the island of Java, had founded the kingdom of subordinates in Bali around the year 1343 AD It was almost throughout the country are Hindus, but as the coming of Islam stood the Islamic kingdoms in the archipelago, among others, led to the collapse of Majapahit. Many nobles, priests, artists and other Hindu community when it is away from Java to Bali.

The Europeans who first discovered Bali is Cornelis de Houtman from Holland in 1597, though a Portuguese ship had previously been dumped near the Bukit peninsula, Jimbaran, in 1585. Dutch through the VOC began to carry out the occupation in the land of Bali, but continue to get resistance, so until the end of the power of their position in Bali is not as solid as their position in the Java or the Moluccas.

Starting from the northern region of Bali, since the 1840s has become a permanent presence of the Dutch who originally performed with the pit-sheep variety of Balinese authorities are not mutually trust each other. Dutch major attack by sea and land against the Sanur region and followed by the Denpasar. Bali party who lost in numbers and armaments do not want to experience shame because of giving up, thus causing the war to the death or bellows that involves all the people both men and women including the king. An estimated 4,000 people were killed in the incident, although the Netherlands has ordered them to surrender. Furthermore, the Dutch governors who ruled only a few influences on the island, so that local control of religion and culture generally does not change.

Japan occupied Bali during World War II and was a military officer named I Gusti Ngurah Rai Bali forming forces ‘freedom fighters’. Following the Japanese surrender in the Pacific in August 1945, the Dutch promptly returned to Indonesia (including Bali) to re-establish its colonial rule as a state before the war. This was opposed by the forces of resistance Bali who was using Japanese weapons.

On 20 November 1945, fighting broke out Puputan Margarana happened in the village of Marga, Tabanan, Bali middle. Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai who was 29 years old, led his army from the eastern region of Bali to launch an attack to death on the Dutch armed forces. All members of the battalion were killed Bali everything and make it as the last Balinese military resistance.

In 1946 the Dutch made Bali as one of 13 areas of the new State of East Indonesia was proclaimed, that as one of the main rival to the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed and headed by Sukarno and Hatta. Bali then also incorporated into the United States of Indonesia when the Dutch recognized Indonesia’s independence on December 29, 1949. In 1950 Bali officially leave trust the Netherlands and legally became a province of the Republic of Indonesia.

The eruption of Mount Agung which occurred in 1963, had shaken the people’s economy and caused many residents of Bali transmigrated to other areas in Indonesia.
In 1965, along with the failure by the G30S coup against the national government in Jakarta, Bali and many other areas there was a crackdown against members and sympathizers of the Communist Party of Indonesia. In Bali, it is estimated more than 100,000 people were killed or missing. Nevertheless, the events in the early days of New Order until now has not managed to be disclosed by law.

Terrorist attacks have occurred on October 12, 2002, a bomb attack in 2002 in Bali Kuta Beach tourist area, causing as many as 202 people were killed and 209 others were injured. 2005 Bali bomb attacks also occurred three years later in Kuta and Jimbaran beach. Such events received widespread international coverage because most of the victims were foreign tourists and led to Bali’s tourism industry faces severe challenges in recent years.

Demographics

Rice fields in Bali
Bali population of approximately 4 million people some more, with a 92.3% majority Hindu religion. Other religions are Buddhism, Islam, Protestantism and Catholicism. Islam is the largest minority religion in Bali with the adherents of 5 to 7.2%.

Apart from tourism, the population of Bali is also a living from agriculture and fisheries, most notably the world of farming in Bali is the Subak system. Some also choose to become an artist. The language used in Bali is Indonesian, Balinese and English, especially for those working in the tourism sector.
Language Balinese and Indonesian are the most widely used language in Bali and Indonesia as the other residents, most of the Balinese people are bilingual or even trilingual.

Although there are several dialects of the Balinese language, Balinese generally use a form of Balinese society as a choice in communication. Traditionally, the use of various dialects of the Balinese language is determined by the color of the chess system in Hindu Dharma and clan membership (terms Bali: Soroh, gotra), although the implementation of these traditions tend to be reduced. In some places in Bali, a number of users of the Java language.

English is the third language (and the primary foreign language) for many of the Balinese people are influenced by the needs of the tourism industry. The employees who work at tourist information centers in Bali, often also understand some of the foreign language skills are sufficient. Japanese is also a priority of education in Bali.

Transportation

Bali has no railway network of the existing road network, but this island is in excellent compared to other regions in Indonesia, with a good road network is available, especially to areas of tourist destination that is Legian, Kuta, Sanur, Nusa Dua, Bali, etc. Most residents have a personal vehicle and choose to use it because public transportation is not available with either, except for taxis and tourist transport. Mass transportation is currently prepared to Bali is able to give more comfort to the tourists.

Until now, transport on Bali are generally built around the southern part of Bali Denpasar, Kuta, Nusa Dua and Sanur, while the northern region lacks good accommodation.
Types of public transportation in Bali :
1.Gig, using the horse as a vehicle towing a wagon known elsewhere
Motorcycle taxi
2.Bemo, serving in and intercity
3.Taxi
4.Komotra, which serve the bus trip to Kuta beach and surrounding area
Bus, serving intercity relations, rural, and between provinces.

Bali is connected with the island of Java by ferry service linking the Port of Gilimanuk in Singaraja regency with the Port of Ketapang in Banyuwangi the long latency of about 30 to 45 minutes. Crossing to the island of Lombok through the Port of Sheet Harbour Padangbai toward which takes about four to five hours duration.

Air transport is served by Ngurah Rai International Airport and destinations to several cities in Indonesia, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Timor Leste, the PRC and Japan. Runways and aircraft coming and going can be seen clearly from the beach and into a kind of additional entertainment for the tourists who enjoy the beaches of Bali.

Culture

Music
A set of Balinese gamelan.
Balinese music has in common with traditional music in many other areas in Indonesia, for example in the use of gamelan and various other percussion instruments. Nonetheless, there are peculiarities in the technique of playing and gubahannya, for example in the form of Kecak, a form of singing that is supposedly imitating the sounds of monkeys. Similarly, also played a variety of gamelan is unique, for example jegog gamelan, gamelan gong big, xylophone gamelan, gamelan and gamelan Semar selunding Pegulingan. There is also music Angklung played for cremation ceremonies and Bebonangan music played in various other ceremonies.

There is a modern form of traditional music of Bali, for example, Gamelan Gong Kebyar which is a dance music that developed in the Dutch colonial period and Joged tube which became popular in Bali since the 1950’s era. Generally Bali music is a combination of a variety of metal percussion instruments (metallophones), gongs and wooden percussion (xylophone). Because of social relations, politics and culture, traditional music of Bali or Balinese gamelan games to influence or affect each other in the area surrounding culture, for example in the traditional music and traditional music community Banyuwangi Lombok.

Dance
Balinese dance in general can be categorized into three groups, the guardian or sacred dance performances, dance performances bebali or for the ceremony and also for visitors and balih-balihan or the art of dance for the entertainment of visitors.

Balinese dance experts I Made Bandem  at the beginning of the 1980s had classified the Balinese dances, among others who belong to the trustee for instance Berutuk, Sang Hyang Dedari, Rejang and Gede line, among others, is Gambuh bebali, Mask Pajegan and Wayang Wong, whereas balih-balihan among others is the Legong, Parwa, Arja, Prembon and Joged as well as many other modern dance choreography.

One of the dances are very popular for tourists and is Kecak Pendet. Sometime in the 1930s, Wayan Limbak working with German painter Walter Spies to create the Kecak dance is based on the tradition of Sang Hyang and parts of the story of Ramayana. Wayan Limbak popularizing this dance while traveling the world with his troupe of Balinese dancers.

 

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