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Lombok Island

Lombok Island

Lombok Island (population in 2001: 2,722,123 inhabitants) is an island in the Lesser Sunda Islands or Nusa Tenggara are separated by the Straits of Lombok and Bali in the west Side Alas Strait to the east of Sumbawa. The island is approximately round with a sort of “tail” on the southwest side whose length is approximately 70 km. This island wide reach 5435 km ², placing it as  108 from the list of islands by area in the world. The main town on the island is Mataram.

Lombok Strait marks the boundaries of flora and fauna of Asia. Starting from the island of Lombok to the east, flora and fauna shows more resemblance to the flora and fauna are found in Australia than Asia . The scientist who first stated this is Alfred Russel Wallace, an Englishman in the 19th century. To honor this limit is called the Wallace Line.

Topography of the island is dominated by Rinjani volcano the height of 3,726 meters above sea level making it the third highest in Indonesia. The mountain last erupted in June-July 1994. In 1997 the mountain and Segara Anak lake in the middle otherwise protected by the government. Area south of the island is mostly composed of fertile land used for agriculture, commodities are usually grown in this area include maize, rice, coffee, tobacco and cotton.

Approximately 80% of the population of this island is the Sasak tribe, a tribe that is still close to the Bali tribes, but most of the converts to Islam. The rest of the population are Balinese, Javanese, Chinese and Arabic.

Besides the Indonesian language as the national language, the population of the island of Lombok (Sasak tribe in particular), using the Sasak language as the primary language in everyday conversation. Across the Sasak Lombok own language can be found in four different dialects of the different dialects of Lombok northern, central, northeast and southeast. In addition to the number of inhabitants living in Bali Lombok (mostly from the former Kingdom of Karangasem), in some places, particularly in West Lombok and Mataram Municipality of settlement can be found using the language of Bali as the language of everyday conversation.

Most of the population is mainly ethnic Sasak Lombok island embraced Islam. The second largest religion practiced in this island is the Hindu religion, which is embraced by the residents of Balinese descent, amounting to about 15% of the population there. Christian, Buddhist and other religions can also be found, and especially embraced by migrants from different tribes and ethnic groups living on the island. The largest religious organization in Lombok is Nahdlatul Wathan (NW), the organization has also established many Islamic educational institutions with different levels of the lowest level to university.

In North Lombok regency, precisely in the area of Bayan, especially among the elderly, can still be found adherents of Islam Wetu Telu flow (three). Unlike most adherents of Islam who prayed five times a day, the adherents of this doctrine in practice the obligatory prayers only three times only. It is said that this happens because the propagator of Islam when Islam is taught in stages and for some reason did not get to refine his message.

In Cakranegara (formerly known as the kingdom Cakranegara) Mataram now, once discovered by the Expedition Ancient Manuscript Lontar Dutch (KNIL) and then retrieved and taken to the Netherlands, this papyrus manuscript was actually in the Kingdom Selaparang (now about Pringgabaya area, East Lombok), but in when the battle between Bali and Lombok, the kingdom has been lost due Selaparang suddenly attacked, and eventually all the royal possessions seized by the troops Selaparang Bali, the remnants of which are not carried away and burned. Including the gold crown of King Selaparang (Devel Selaparang) and papyrus manuscripts are dipelajarai Kertagama State by the Son and the royal officers Selaparang. This page was added by Zulkarnain Then, work on the Regional Secretariat of Mataram.

History

According to the Chronicle content of Lombok, the oldest kingdom that once ruled the island kingdom named Laeq (in sasak laeq means the past), but other sources which Suwung Chronicle, states that the oldest kingdom in kingdom Suwung Lombok is built and led by King Betara sense. Suwung kingdom then subsided and was replaced by the Kingdom of Lombok. On the 9th century until the 11th century stood the Sasak kingdom was defeated by one of the kingdom from Bali at the time. Some of the other kingdoms that once stood on the island of Lombok include Pejanggik, Langko, Bayan, chock Samarkaton and Selaparang.

Selaparang own kingdom emerged in the two periods in the 13th century and the 16th century. The first is the kingdom Selaparang Hindu kingdom and his rule ended with the arrival of the expedition of Majapahit Kingdom in the year 1357. Selaparang second kingdom is the kingdom of Islam and the rule ended in 1744 after defeated by the combined forces of the Kingdom of Karangasem Getas Banjar Bali and Arya who is a treason against the royal family because of problems with the king Selaparang.

This led to the occupation of Bali Bali is a strong cultural influence on the west side of Lombok, as in dance and heritage buildings (eg Castle Cakranegara in Ampenan). New in 1894 Lombok free from interference due to the influence of Karangasem Batavia (Dutch East Indies) that goes for the transgression of Sasak people invited them to come. However, Lombok and then under the dominion of the Dutch East Indies direct.

The entry of Japan (1942) makes automatic Lombok was under Japanese occupation government control of the east. After World War II Lombok was under the State of East Indonesia, before then in 1950 joined the Republic of Indonesia.

 

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